Similarly, ARL may not be working to leverage external advances in silicon photonics, especially with regard to heterogeneous materials. However, in both cases, these concerns were partially allayed by discussions with staff and management regarding the status of some programs related to these technologies. Nonetheless, there remains more opportunity for ARL to capitalize on its internal and external advances.
The enormous potential impact of the photonics work could have been presented more vigorously and compellingly. One way of doing so could be to augment an individual photonics presentation with an explicit description of the broader potential impact if it succeeds. Army goals were noted, but they often comprised immediate technical targets as opposed to what the ultimate impact could be for a more comprehensive field of science or for broader Army applications.
The presentation on structural batteries using additive manufacturing has significant potential associated with its innovative approach.
The project combines novel fabrication methods with insight into selection of compatible multifunctional elements that combine structural components with energy storage components. Experimental work is carried out concurrent with modeling studies that guide system design choices. The external collaborations are facilitated by a flexible methodology that provides easy incorporation of next-generation subcomponent materials as they are developed.
However, the effort needs to grow across a wider range of projects, with a focus on identifying appropriate modeling methods and on closing the experiment—theory—simulation loop. Increased interaction with the significant computational resources of ARL could help bridge the gap until additional capacity is available within the Materials Research Campaign.
At present, first-principles computational modeling is growing, mainly through collaboration with recognized experts elsewhere, guided by very capable but limited-in-number experienced internal research staff. In comparison to the expansion in first-principles modeling, engineering models are underutilized, perhaps because in-house expertise in this facet of modeling is limited.
Engineering models are typically developed at the outset from a simple set of input parameters or components that, together with the model, predict system behavior. Routine methods are now available to identify the most sensitive components for which improved fundamental knowledge is needed, to provide uncertainty quantification, and to guide system-level optimization during scale-up or scale-down beyond experimental regimes. The combination of an appropriate engineering modeling effort with the intuitive understanding of experimentalists is a highly effective engineering approach and needs to be targeted as a growth area.
In some energy and power applications, such as Li-ion batteries and fuel cells, there is a broad, vigorous, fast-moving, worldwide research effort directed toward identifying fundamental scientific issues and developing novel materials and entire systems. Accordingly, the narrowly focused ARL projects. The knowledge necessary to define the goals of such projects depends critically on tracking research advances elsewhere.
Because postdoctoral and other early-career permanent staff researchers benefit from exposure to research activities beyond ARL, it is critically important to promote and expand active mentoring by senior staff. The quality of the work in photonics materials is comparable to that found at most research universities. This is an impressive accomplishment in light of the inherently wide scope of the technical program, which is essential to addressing diverse current and future Army needs. The quality of the work presented reflects a high level of technical competence and professionalism on the part of the researchers and management.
The portfolio of the engineered photonics materials group shows a good balance of high-risk, longer-term work with nearer-term customer-driven solutions or incremental, critical technology refinement. This well-balanced portfolio is supported by a strong materials capability in staff expertise and laboratory or clean room infrastructure. Investments are impressive for computational modeling and simulation that ARL has successfully implemented to complement its strengths and core competencies in materials synthesis and characterization, as well as device work.
All of these facilities and capabilities are being leveraged into compelling device and application-driven work, especially in ultraviolet UV materials, infrared IR devices, and the device physics in both areas. In addition to technical diversity, there is workforce diversity.
This project involves work to improve performance of low-concentration photovoltaic cells targeting robust, lightweight power for soldiers in theater.
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The technical focus is developing solutions using III-V quantum-dot materials to extend performance into the longer wave regions of the solar spectrum, and to improve efficiency by minimizing recombination. Solar PV is one of the important pathways to reducing the weight of power solutions in theater. The experimental work showed solid progress, reflecting the strong competence of the team, which evinced expertise that includes epitaxy and sophisticated quantum dot engineering, polyethylene terephthalate PET moth eye surfaces, and intentionally induced morphological features on III-V layers for enhanced photon capture.
There appeared to be extensive collaborations with researchers outside ARL. The wetting layer state-engineering designs might benefit from more direct experimental verification of their efficacy in reducing recombination in the dots. There was a lack of clarity on the trade-offs between the high concentration 30 to times what is typically seen when realizing the benefits of advanced materials and the low concentration less than 4 times what is typically required in nontracking applications.
Additional questions include comparisons with spectral splitting, which was examined in the DARPA-sponsored very-high-efficiency solar cell program. Progress was reported on protein-wrapped fluorescent metal nanoparticles, motivated by their potential use as neuronal pressure sensors. The long-term goal is to develop a fundamental mechanistic understanding of mild traumatic brain injury onset and development.
The fundamental work on the biomediated synthesis of atomic nanoclusters was compelling, and the fact that the proteins retain their native functionality after synthesis has tremendous potential. For example, the resulting nanoparticles may be noncytotoxic, and it may be possible to direct them to specific locations within a cell. These nanoparticle building blocks are anticipated to provide unique opportunities based on their interesting optical and physical properties. An example given was fluorescence change with pressure seen for one protein but not a different protein, an indication that interesting protein science may be enabled by this system.
There is some concern regarding the specific proposed application for these particles for understanding shock waves in tissue. The fluorescence changes with pressure were small 20 percent over MPa for one system and about 6 percent over kPa for a different system. In real tissue, these small changes over less than 1 ms, from a single or a few particles, will be very hard to observe. What is needed is a deeper physical analysis of the full system, including the signal-to-noise ratio in realistic shock wave and illumination conditions, and what is anticipated at a single neuron level.
Also needed is a comparison with other potential techniques, such as Forster resonance energy transfer and plasmonic particles, in the context of nanoscale pressure sensors. The objective of this project is to use many-body theory to model lifetime in III-nitride structures, including free carrier and exciton effects, polarization fields, and density-dependent screening of Coulomb interaction and polarization fields. This a very challenging problem, and the principal investigator is making good progress in describing radiative lifetime, including many-body effects such as phase-phase filling, screening, and quasi-particle renormalization.
However, nonradiative processes were not described at the same level of theory. Semiempirical, nonradiative models using activation energy were shown not to fit experimental data well, but improved fits were achieved with a combination of a fixed temperature-independent component plus an activation-energy component. The development of first-principles-based and self-consistent predictive capabilities to describe carrier lifetime in III-nitride structures, including both radiative and nonradiative processes, is not easy.
However, the principal investigator presented a scientific strategy to make progress toward addressing this challenge. The strategy calls for alloy fluctuations, a many-band description of the electronic wave function, the use of nonparabolic bands, and the inclusion of nonradiative recombination processes. This work entailed the compelling development of models and experimental devices and materials to evaluate the efficacy of novel solutions for improved single-photonic avalanche detectors in the UV as replacements for photomultiplier tubes.
The principal concept is to use GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers to address the reduction in quantum efficiencies that stems from the use of semitransparent metal electrodes on current SiC devices. Self-assembled monolayer structures were introduced to either isolate the SiC to a multiplication layer or to just use the AlGaN as a transparent contact layer to keep the SiC away from surface so as to avoid surface recombination.
This work is promising and has high-quality external partnerships. It has mainly involved epitaxy development and Si diffusion studies, and the transitioning of these to device results in avalanche operation is awaited. This project is directed at the development of a comprehensive model that combines the finite-difference, time-domain electromagnetics of nanostructured surfaces with finite-element modeling, drift-diffusion transport to understand and optimize device designs and material structures.
The model is comprehensive in that it included material, electronic, optical, and especially nanostructured geometric properties that strongly impact the electromagnetics. The integrated software suite allowed analysis of very complicated multipixel arrays, and the principal investigator showed how more simplistic models would not properly capture major performance factors. One example was that the performance of nanostructured cones could be estimated reasonably well with effective medium models at longer wavelength, but at shorter wavelengths complex scattering among the cones dominated the performance.
The model was shown to be useful in assessing pixel cross talk in arrays, as well as heterostructure design and junction location for optimization of collection efficiency while minimizing generation-recombination GR dark current. This is an excellent project directed toward an important topic in terms of the needs of both the Army and the broader technical community. The goal of this research is to provide a simpler and more compact 2. Early work has been conducted on an innovative concept to make a dual-core fiber laser that would support thulium lasing at 1, nm in a multimode core that would, in turn, pump a Ho single-mode core at 2.
This design is intended to achieve two excitations in the Tm with a single optical pump in the nm range. This is an interesting concept, but it is too early to expect definitive evaluation of the potential. This effort may now be positioned to benefit from a stronger modeling component to resolve the impact of saturation on spatial mode competition and laser performance. Suitable baseline modeling capabilities are readily available in the literature, and in conjunction with a more deliberate experimental plan, the modeling may be useful for isolating critical performance trade-offs.
The principal investigator is engaged in a valuable external partnership with strong competence in these fiber materials. This project consists of preliminary work on improving mid-IR lasers by increasing the effective thermal conductivity of the gain media, using nanoscale composite MgO high thermal conductivity with Er:Y 2 O 3 the gain media. This work addresses many scientific and engineering challenges, including the achievable effective thermal conductivity of the composite, which may be limited by phonon scattering, and the achievable volume fraction of gain media needed to be competitive with current solutions.
This work has high potential, and it may benefit from some early modeling to determine the property bounds and trade-offs. The team could also be more vigilant in reaching out to others, including the Air Force Research Laboratory, to evaluate similar work.
This project involves work on an elegant and simple device approach for detecting trace elements. While many optical detection techniques are available, these are usually large and contain many precision optical elements. The detection technique proposed is small, robust, and potentially inexpensive, if applications supporting high-volume laser production are realized.
In addition to offering a potential for more pervasive use, this will better ensure that this transitions into a product useful to the Army. This work involves a system based on the well-tested use of inkjet printing. Although ARL has used only a single print head, the researchers have been able to print on many materials e. The system can be used to understand how the samples age, and the flexibility of patterning and reproducibility of the technique were shown to be useful in capturing the unexpected impact of real-life variations of species on surfaces in the field.
This is important work that continues to be funded by customers. This work illustrates the outstanding evolution of research aimed at using a collinear approach to coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy CARS for trace gas detection. These studies focused initially on pulse characterization but transitioned to the examination of mathematical methods and algorithms for extracting the desired spectral signal from broadband background spectra.
The principal investigator was able to demonstrate strong signal-to-noise ratio improvements that substantially enhance the efficacy of the CARS approach. This project involved the expanded modeling and experiments on the microresonator enhancement presented 2 years earlier. The work showed that very small variations in microresonator dimensional control had strong impact on both the peak efficiencies and the bandwidth of the enhancement.
This important advance may not be receiving sufficient resources to move quickly to highly optimized commercial technology. This work involved pump-probe studies of ultrafast carrier dynamics and charge transport in heterostructures, with the ability to interrogate charge-generated terahertz field profiles in materials prepared for device structures. This research represents a valuable investment in advanced characterization, and the quality of both the topics and investigators is excellent.
In addition to being of immediate value to materials and device researchers, the projects are conducive to quality papers and conference presentations of broad interest to the technical community. The plan is to ultimately fabricate GaN polar heterostructures from which to design a quantum memory device with multimode capacity. Moreover, the ARL team has a strong track record of published contributions in this field. The consistent development and extension of modeling to broader sets of problems and applications is an opportunity area.
One prototype project is short-wavelength IR device modeling and optimization. The important software tool set coming from this research is not only essential for designers, but it may also provide critically sensitive parameters that could be used in process control for commercial partners and suppliers of imaging solutions to the Army, which necessitates engaging with the manufacturers. The overall impression of the materials in extreme dynamic environments program and the high strain rate and ballistics materials research at ARL was positive.
The projects showed an excellent degree of integration between materials science fundamentals and applications, combining simulations and experiments aimed at developing structure-property correlations with advanced processing and fabrication approaches. ARL is also establishing itself as a world leader by building novel capabilities, including, for example, extensive facilities for metals, polymers, and composites processing. The miniaturized Hopkinson bar and multiscale, rate-dependent mechanical testing equipment along with microscale sample preparation set-up for investigating polymers, metals, ceramics, fibers, and threads, are unique facilities.
In situ measurements performed using these facilities will provide the needed fundamental knowledge for developing and validating computational models for improved understanding of high-strain-rate effects. Throughout the high-strain-rate and ballistic materials efforts, there is substantial growth in the use of computation and modeling and its integration with experimentation. Continued advances in this area are needed, adding, wherever possible, physics-based analysis. This program is aimed at establishing the capabilities to design materials for use in specific extreme dynamic environments.
The collaboration has obvious advantages and is producing good fundamental research as evidenced by about 94 jointly authored publications. It is also promoting internal collaboration between different subfields and disciplines with expertise in computations, experiments, and manufacturing—pushing the envelope further in terms of the research conducted. Additionally, interactions with the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory in the United Kingdom and the establishment of the Mach conference 2 are laudable efforts.
The level of the research at ARL is benefitting significantly from these interactions. ARL is providing the necessary leadership to ensure this collaboration. This program concerns the development of practical multiscale modeling strategies for applications relevant to the simulations of structural and energetic materials. The emphasis is on the use of small-scale models within elements, in effect, as constitutive models. The details of the small-scale models are invisible to the continuum-scale finite element code. The use of surrogate subscale models is a key innovation.
This is a good idea because it allows subscale results to be recycled to future time steps, avoiding the need to repeat small-scale calculations. The effectiveness of the method results from the fact that the subscale model is applied to only a small fraction of continuum elements at any given time. This results in a significant reduction in computational time. Much of the development has focused on the computational infrastructure to make this strategy effective. The infrastructure adaptively assigns processors to the calculations in the two levels.
The software tools make efficient use of many processors in a medium-sized application. This program is an excellent example of coordination between various topics aimed at microscale experimental investigation of UHMWPE fibers, including processing of fibers and films, and their effects on ballistic performance. The modeling examines the three-dimensional network of polymer chains as a double network, at an atomistic level, allowing for development of simulations of mechanisms associated with polyethylene.
One of the keys to understanding this system has been the development of the reactive potentials used for modeling UHMWPE. The use of quantum mechanical data to develop this potential has been shown to be fast and accurate. This program is enabling the design and exploration of properties of new materials—for example, different variants of graphene, or graphylene—that may lead to better armor.
The possibility of developing a two-dimensional 2D structure from polyethylene to increase ballistic performance is indeed an out-of-the-box thinking. Graphylene, an example of a proposed 2D polymer, consists of carbon rings connected by polyethylene chains. Density functional theory DFT and MD modeling of this polymer suggests that the carbon rings make it compliant and ductile while also providing the stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness needed for increased ballistic performance, in particular for body armor applications.
This project, which is also leveraging an Army Research Office-funded multidisciplinary university research initiative program on 2D polymer synthesis, is an example of successfully using computational tools to design and develop new materials. This program included a fundamental study on B 4 C that addressed the important issues at the root of its poor ballistic performance. The computational work, which can also be extended to other ceramic systems, is leading to an improved understanding of the amorphization process that occurs under the combined effects of pressure and shear.
The potentials developed by Goddard and others were compared, through the virtual diffraction patterns generated, to experimental ones by Anselmi-Tamburini. The overall goal was to investigate the improvement of toughness mediated by engineered grain boundaries. The work represents an excellent fundamental effort. The strain-rate range investigated up to approximately 10 6 s —1 is impressive and is being enabled with the use of a miniature tensile Hopkinson bar.
The gripping of the specimens is especially crucial and seems to have been successfully accomplished. Diagnostics, including digital image correlation DIC and X-ray measurement techniques, are revealing details about the internal process of failure within fibers that are apparently a first in the polymer fiber community.
Future small-angle X-ray scattering characterization is planned, and fibril-level testing will be conducted to establish the effects of the spatial scale. The strain-rate sensitivity is surprisingly low and attributed to viscoelastic effects. The project is providing valuable data about the high-rate deformation and failure of polymer fibers that will be of lasting value to the armor material design community. The project is. Multiaxial loading is important in armor materials because the shear strength can depend on other stress components and the hydrostatic pressure.
The future work involving atomic force microscopy AFM in real time is well thought of and at the frontier of knowledge. The project is testing micron sized fibers to assess multi-axial stress states. Handling such small samples is no trivial task, leave alone getting high quality data on the material. Multiaxial loading is being initiated, with compression on the fibers superimposed along with tensile loading. The discussion of setting up a fiber and film facility, with future plans of adding additional diagnostics such as dynamic X-ray system is indeed exciting and fascinating.
This project addresses the inelastic deformation due to contact loading of B 4 C. Both material and model development efforts were supported by transmission electron microscopy TEM examination of sections subjected to inelastic deformation, which consisted of a Knoop hardness indentation. Increase in the load resulted in increasing planar defects, amorphous bands, and micro- and macro-cracking.
Most amorphous bands followed the maximum shear stress trajectories. This project is intended to develop an understanding of the connection between processing of composites with UHMWPE fibers and their ballistic performance. The researchers identified inter-laminar shear strength as a key material property and developed a simple but effective test to measure this property in a laminate. DIC diagnostics are used to visualize the deformation and crack growth at the interface.
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Finite element modeling is used to help understand the progression of failure. The main process variable being studied is fabrication pressure.
Higher pressure decreases the inter-laminar shear strength. The researchers measured changes in the morphology of the ply interfaces that apparently help to explain this effect. This project is developing and applying testing techniques to observe the microscale processes that occur in the interior of UHMWPE fibers during mechanical loading. ARL researchers have developed a novel sample preparation technique that helps to reveal the mechanics of fibrils within a fiber. Microscopic imaging techniques, including AFM, show the evolution of structures and defects as a fiber is strained.
Force-displacement measurements are correlated with these microscale events. The techniques and data being developed in this project significantly advance the state of knowledge of the behavior of fibers beyond what is available in the literature. This project is providing unique insights into the materials science underlying the failure process in fibers.
The data collected and the new techniques developed will be of great value in the improvement of fiber materials and processes. The data will also be useful to computational model developers. This project builds on the on-going search for new penetrator materials. Currently, tungsten-based alloys are used, but the performance is inferior to that of depleted uranium DU. One important feature of DU penetrators is the formation of adiabatic shear bands, leading to a reduction in the diameter of the hole and increased penetration depth.
The current research on nanocrystalline tungsten powders and their consolidation by pressure-less sintering seems to be producing materials with desirable properties with the ability to shear localize. This project uses nanocrystalline iron to bind tungsten carbide WC powders that show excellent properties. This binder replacement is motivated by the toxicity of the current cobalt binders.
Pressure-less sintering is used to produce the necessary homogeneous microstructure with the desired hardness and toughness properties. The promising feature of this project is the repeatability of the process, which is the first step necessary for further studies prior to transition. There is a close collaboration with the lethality group and the U. This project is using the scale-up capabilities available at ARL for high-energy ball milling of powders and equal channel angular pressing processing to synthesize and fabricate oxide-dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys.
The bulk material fabricated with a microstructure consisting of nano- to microscale grains with larger-sized intermetallic precipitates and zirconium oxide dispersed particles, demonstrates substantially high room-temperature compressive strengths of the order of 1. Although the compressive strength at elevated temperature is lower than that at room temperature, the work illustrates the control of interstitial elements picked up during powder processing. This project combines selective area laser sintering and localized laser chemical vapor deposition with motion control and real-time temperature feedback loop to fabricate bulk and complex shapes from diamond-diamond powder composites.
The technique uses conventional additive methods to first create a preform starting with diamond powders, and next follows that with chemical vapor deposition of diamond coatings on the particles in the preform to grow and form the fully dense diamond-diamond composite. The approach combines the benefit of both processes, which individually are unable to produce diamond powder compacts in bulk and complex forms. The approach also provides the versatility to employ various ceramics to create the matrix binder phase for the diamond preforms.
The acquired components for building the reactor for the deposition system have been assembled, and the control program is being developed. Once the system is built and the control program is optimized, it will be used to identify the sintering conditions for fabrication of the diamond preforms and the desired deposition chemistries to achieve the growth conditions needed to make bulk composites with different reinforcement and matrix phases.
This is a good example of a project in which an ARL postdoctoral. The film laminates do not need a separate matrix material like epoxy. However, their mechanical properties are sensitive to processing conditions, especially temperature. The film plies bind to each other just below the melt temperature. The properties of the film laminates are unknown, compared to the fiber laminates. However, it has been discovered that under suitable processing history, the film laminates have excellent mechanical strength, even without the inter-laminar matrix material.
The project is also seeking out lower-cost solutions to fabrication. It is an important project to the ARL mission of developing effective and lightweight armor materials. Important results are being obtained that will aid the application of film composites for land forces. The MD simulations considering two-carbon long ethylene chains connecting the benzyne rings in the polymer framework, illustrate that the energy release rate for crack propagation in graphelyne is twice that for graphene due to effects of dissipative processes such as delocalized failure and crack branching.
The simulations were extended to predict the response of ensembles of discrete platelets of 2D materials and to demonstrate superior mechanical performance through careful design of inter-layer interactions. This is the first such study predicting the design and mechanical behavior of 2D materials aimed at guiding the synthesis of novel polymers.
These efforts have yet to be extended to the prediction of the performance under high-rate impact conditions relevant for applications in body armor or to the synthesis of such a material. This project is a novel computational simulation method that is intended to predict the impact resistance of glass armor materials. The peridynamic method is compatible with the physical nature of the problem because it allows for discontinuous deformations, since it does not rely on differential equations.
The peridynamic equations do not require smoothness of the displacement field. The method therefore has inherent advantages over traditional approaches to fracture modeling that rely on finite elements to approximate the partial differential equations of the standard theory of solid mechanics. The researchers have developed a peridynamic solver that couples with a finite difference solver, allowing the peridynamic portion of the mesh to adaptively follow the growing crack tips.
This innovation allows for greater computational efficiency and reduced wave dispersion in the coupled model. The project team is acquiring an ISRA optical instrument that can measure flaw distributions in glass samples prior to impact. This will allow measurements of flaw distributions to be initialized into the computational model, thus providing more meaningful validation of fracture and fragmentation than was previously possible. The principal investigator PI collaborates with other staff members at ARL who fabricate glass with specific compositions, permitting the modeling effort to be coordinated with materials pro-.
ARL is establishing itself as a widely respected center of research on the peridynamic theory and computational methods.
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There were several impressive posters reporting on new measurement techniques and diagnostics capabilities. For example, the exciting and novel development of a miniaturized Hopkinson bar also known as a Kolsky bar , is used for characterization of polymers, metals, ceramics, fibers, threads, and fibrils, at high strain rates. This will help with the development of new models or validation of models at strain rates higher than those that are currently accessible. The development is novel and a breakthrough in the ability to understand materials at the micro scale.
Coupled with time-resolved diagnostics such as DIC, dynamic X-ray technology, framing cameras, and so on, this capability has the potential of making ARL a leading research institution in investigating material behavior and properties measurements at high strain rates. The projects that highlight these capabilities are described below. This project focuses on sample preparation and fabrication processes for characterizing materials at high-strain-rate loading. This technique was developed at University of California, Santa Barbara.
Large numbers of specimens can be produced for quasi-static and dynamic testing. This project uses new capability to characterize polymers such as polycarbonate and polymethyl methacrylate over a broad range of strain rates as accessed by the mini Hopkinson bar.
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A range of capabilities was used to establish the response of bulk polymers primarily polycarbonate and acrylic over a broad dynamic strain rate regime. Infrared detectors measure the increase in temperature due to deformation, which is especially important in polymers where the glass transition temperature is not far from room temperature. This project is exploring another application of the mini Hopkinson bar for testing of epoxy-based polymers. It involves an integrated modeling and simulation approach to identify possible chain mechanisms to explain the improved strength performance observed in high-strain-rate measurements on epoxy.
In its present state, the multiscale computational method apparently has been applied only to subscale models that essentially provide an equation of state to the continuum finite element model. While the. Realistic subscale models for materials involve the evolution of defects that lead to phenomena such as work hardening, thermal softening, shear localization, dynamic fracture and spallation, and so on, which remain to be incorporated.
The example provided in a presentation to the panel, a Taylor test, is an oversimplified case. The incorporation of physics is an essential part of predictive codes and cannot be ignored. In the case of explosives and propellants, chemical reactions, deflagration, and detonation have to be incorporated. Close work with Betsy Rice, a globally recognized leader in this field, is highly recommended. The stated goal of connecting quantum mechanics, MD, dissipative particle dynamics DPD , and continuum models will require the ARL team to investigate multiscale strategies and go beyond the scale-coupling focus and software aspects of multiscale computational modeling.
Furthermore, although these aspects present significant challenges that the ARL team is addressing very well, the physical models underlying the subscale computations are worthy of careful research and cannot be treated as a black box. Collaborations with researchers at the California Institute of Technology e. Goddard and other institutions, as well as at the Department of Energy DOE laboratories, may be worthwhile to seek paths for the incorporation of the physics in the subscale models and their implementation into the multiscale infrastructure.
The methods used in this program can be applied to link continuum models to better understand mechanisms in more bridged structures. Understanding of the mechanisms of these materials and the interface interactions has the potential to lead to improved polymeric armor with better ballistic performance.
The goal of computational materials design is still largely unrealized in the larger multiscale modeling community. If the ARL group can succeed, the payoff would be very high. Available from these sellers. The adhesive on the entire Glass. Return Policy on this item This item is non-returnable.
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Graphene Armor Glass™ Ultra HD Clarity Tempered Glass for Apple iPhone 6 PLUS
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